By Shyy W., Aono H., Kang C.-k., Liu H.
This is often a fantastic booklet for graduate scholars and researchers drawn to the aerodynamics, structural dynamics, and flight dynamics of small birds, bats, and bugs, in addition to of micro air cars (MAVs), which current the various richest difficulties intersecting technological know-how and engineering. The agility and striking flight functionality of common flyers, because of their versatile, deformable wing constructions in addition to to impressive wing, tail, and physique coordination, is very major. To layout and construct MAVs with functionality corresponding to normal flyers, it really is crucial that typical flyers' mixed versatile structural dynamics and aerodynamics are appropriately understood. the first concentration of this e-book is to handle the hot advancements in flapping wing aerodynamics. This booklet extends the paintings provided in Aerodynamics of Low Reynolds quantity Flyers (Shyy et al. 2008)
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Additional info for An Introduction to Flapping Wing Aerodynamics
The drag on a finite wing (Dw ) is the sum of these two components: Dw = Dind + Dpro . (1–28) The parasite drag (Dpar ), which is defined as the drag on the body and only on the body, also contributes to the total drag on the bird. This drag component is caused by the form and friction drag of the “non-lifting” body (it is true that, if the body is tilted at an angle to the free-stream, it will contribute to lift, but this contribution is very small and is neglected). If the drags of the wing and body are summed, the total aerodynamic drag (Daero ) of the bird can be expressed as Daero = Dind + Dpro + Dpar .
1–5). , the Passeriforms, the Shorebirds, and the Ducks) do not follow the one-third law. 3, for hummingbirds, wing loading is almost independent of body mass; hence different species can have the same wing loading. 4. All gulls and their relatives have long, slender wings and streamlined bodies, so it was reasonable to assume geometric similarity. 4 it is obvious that the wing loading and cruising speed generally increase with weight. 5 Aspect Ratio As for aircraft, the aspect ratio (AR) can give an indication of the flight characteristics for flapping animals.
In addition to the components previously introduced, the inertial power (Piner ) refers to the power needed to move the wings and only the wings. The most important parameter when calculating this power is the wing’s moment of inertia. Two main ways exist to obtain a low moment of inertia: to keep the mass of the wing as low as possible and to concentrate the mass as much as possible near the axis of rotation. The inertial power is typically small under medium to fast forward flight conditions and can be neglected .
An Introduction to Flapping Wing Aerodynamics by Shyy W., Aono H., Kang C.-k., Liu H.