By Jacques Véron, Sophie Pennec, Jacques Légaré
Our societies are growing old. The relations is altering. Labour strength behaviour is evolving. How is the employer of kin and collective team spirit adapting during this context of longer existence spans, low fertility, and paintings that's concurrently scarce and abundant?
The welfare states are at the moment dealing with 3 major demanding situations: make sure passable residing stipulations for the aged with out expanding the price burden at the energetic inhabitants, lessen social inequality, and preserve fairness among successive generations. during this booklet, researchers from assorted nations evaluate their studies and supply contrasting perspectives at the way forward for social safeguard. they think about the theoretical elements of the intergenerational debate, kinfolk among generations in the family members, the dwelling criteria of aged humans, and the query of social time.
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Additional info for Ages, Generations and the Social Contract: The Demographic Challenges Facing the Welfare State
5 years. Official government agencies have a history of underpredicting mortality gains at older ages and consequently underpredicting the number of elderly (Keilman, 1997; National Research Council, 2000; Lee and Miller, 2001). , 2000). If these projections based on historical trends are correct, then population aging will be greater than the official projections once again. However, there is some reason to think that life expectancy gains may be even greater than these. 1 years per decade (White, 2002, average of sexes, for 21 industrial nations, 1955–1995).
Becker and Murphy (1988) havedeveloped an interesting theory linking parental transfer decisions to the development of the welfare state. Ideally, parents would invest in the education of their children up to the point where the rate of return to an additional year of education would equal the rate of return on an additional unit of capital. This is the socially optimal amount of investment in children. If parents want to do still more for their children beyond this point, they can bequeath them physical capital earning the market rate of return, higher than additional education would earn.
However, these reforms address only one part of the problem: early retirement. The budgetary pressures generated by population aging, and by the growing costs of health care, will have to be addressed in other ways, and one can only hope that other government activities will be preserved as well, including social investment in children. DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE, WELFARE 41 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Research for this paper was funded by a grant from NIA, R37-AG11761. I thank Tim Miller for help with computations and graphics, and Monique Verrier for editorial contributions.
Ages, Generations and the Social Contract: The Demographic Challenges Facing the Welfare State by Jacques Véron, Sophie Pennec, Jacques Légaré