By Alfred Sauvy (auth.)
It is hard for us this present day to visualize that equivalent academic chance, with which we're so deeply preoccupied, was once at one time thought of to be if no longer an evil at the least a futile target, and that those that held such an opinion have been thoroughly insincere or even disinterested. For a vertically stratified society equality of schooling needed to be antagonistic be reason it should disturb an equilibrium as important as that of a construction. within the center a long time simply the Church was once in a position to search for new contributors on the backside of the social ladder, on the grounds that ecclesiastical workplace used to be no longer inherited via beginning. yet efforts during this course have been inevitably very constrained, whether in basic terms due to the fabric stumbling blocks to such an goal. Equality of schooling, in addition to the other form of equality couldn't also be imagined by way of the aristocracy whose very life may were threatened. Its preliminary indifference used to be by means of energetic competition. whilst it grew to become attainable to formulate the query of the diffusion of schooling, within the seventeenth and 18th centuries, the primary itself met with a primary objection. The ruling category, idle by means of its very nature, feared that the staff and particularly these at the land might abandon their efficient labours, now felt to be degrading, and swell the ranks of the parasites within the cities.
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Extra resources for Access to Education: New Possibilities
1970. Cf. Le Monde 22-23 February 1970. 48 Cf. 1969. Sometimes secondary school programmes do not conform to examination requirements. For example chemistry exams include a number of questions on reduction and 45 46 The Socialist Countries (/945-/970) Warsaw and 313 from the provinces sat for the entry examination to the Warsaw Polytechnic. 191 candidates from Warsaw passed the examination and 101 were accepted. The figures for students from the provinces were respectively 153 and 55. " 50 PERCENTAGES PER SOCIAL GROUP FOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS AND UNIVERSITIES Status oj head ojjamify Managerial and intellectual professions Skilled workmen Unskilled workmen i'vlanual or agricultural labourers in secondary schools 83 37 15 18 in universities 34 7 2 3 The same phenomenon can be observed in all Eastern European countries.
3% of working-class children went on to higher V. Subkin, The sociological problems of choosing a career, op. cit. p. 29-30. , p. 35. 3"2 V. V. Vodzinskaja, 0 social 'noj obuslovennosti vybora professii. (Social conditioning and the choice of a career) in "The social problems of work and production," op. cit. The study was carried out in Leningrad and district with a sample of 3000 people interviewed twice, the first interview taking place at the end of the school year, the second at the start of the next school year.
The percentage of children of working class and peasant origin has increased by 2 %. A system must therefore be developed by which this percentage can be considerably increased. To achieve this the scholarship system must be improved, as must above all the work of youth organizations in schools and in universities, and methods of recruiting teachers must be changed. " 43 In 1969 in fact there were basic reforms of selection methods. 44 Furthermore "to ensure proper selection of candidates" the composition of the selection committees was widened.
Access to Education: New Possibilities by Alfred Sauvy (auth.)