By Richard H. Groshong
Geological constructions are 3 dimensional, but tend to be represented via, and - terpreted from, outcrop maps and constitution contour maps, either one of that are curved two-dimensional surfaces. Maps plus serial sections, known as 2½-D, supply a better method of 3 dimensionality. computing device expertise now enables geological interpretations to be constructed from the start in an absolutely 3 dim- sional atmosphere. totally three-D geological versions permit a lot better interpre- tions and interpretations which are a lot more uncomplicated to proportion with different geologists and with most of the people. This publication offers an summary of thoughts for developing structural interpretations in 2-D, 2½-D and three-D environments; for interpolating - tween and extrapolating past the regulate issues; and for validating the ultimate int- pretation. The underlying philosophy is that constructions are three-d sturdy our bodies and that information from during the constitution, even if in 2-D or 3-D structure, could be built-in into an internally constant three-D interpretation. it really is assumed that the majority clients of this booklet will do their paintings on a working laptop or computer. C- sequently, the booklet presents quantitative structural equipment and methods which are designed to be used with spreadsheets, mapping software program, and 3-dimensional c- puter-graphics courses. The e-book is usually meant to supply the heritage for knowing what interpretive software program, for instance, a working laptop or computer contouring p- gram, does instantly. such a lot thoughts are provided in either a conventional structure applicable for paper, pencil, and a pocket calculator, and in quantitative layout to be used with spreadsheets and computer-graphics or computer-aided-design programs.
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Additional info for 3-D Structural Geology: A Practical Guide to Quantitative Surface and Subsurface Map Interpretation
B Map view of the deviated well. Locations of points down hole are given by their distance from the surface location. 1 Datum The coordinates of points in a well need to be corrected to a common datum elevation, normally sea level. The depths should be adjusted so that they are positive above sea level and negative below. 1) where SD = subsea depth, KB = elevation of Kelly bushing or other measurement of surface elevation, MD = measured depth on well log. 2 Deviated Well Many wells are purposely drilled to deviate from the vertical.
Return the overlay to its original position to see the result (Fig. 14c). If the plunge and trend to be plotted are those of a line, follow the same steps as in plotting a dip vector. 45 46 Chapter 2 · Location and Attitude Fig. 15. Apparent dip in the plane given by the dip vector 32, 150 on an equal-area, lower-hemisphere stereogram. a Plane plotted with apparent dips shown as black squares. The south-trending apparent dip is 28, 180. b Overlay rotated 10° to bring the 080° trending apparent dip into measurement position; apparent dip is 15, 080 Plotting poles and lines can be done more quickly on a stereogram using a Biemsderfer plotter (Wise 2005), a calibrated dip scale that rotates on the center of the net to allow plotting of points without rotating the overlay.
Fig. 7. Calculation of position of a unit boundary in a deviated well. a Boundary located between two control points. b Boundary located below the control points 39 40 Chapter 2 · Location and Attitude To find the coordinates of an intermediate point, P, between P1 and P2, let r be the distance along the well from the upper control point to the point P. In a right-handed xyzz coordinate system (Fig. 3b) z = (rz2 + sz1) / (r + s) . 3c) L is found from the Pythagorean theorem: L = [(x2 – x1)2 + ((y2 – y1)2 + (z2 – z1)2]1/2 .
3-D Structural Geology: A Practical Guide to Quantitative Surface and Subsurface Map Interpretation by Richard H. Groshong